Sol-gel: Uncomplicated, routine and affordable synthesis procedure for utilization of composites in drug delivery: Review

  • Reyhaneh Nasr Azadani Department of Biomaterials Nanotechnology and Tissue engineering, School of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
  • Milad Sabbagh Lecturer at Dept. Biomedical Eng. & Dept. Laboratory Instrumentation Eng.
  • Haniye Salehi Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman, Irann, Iran
  • Amir Cheshmi Department of Materials Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Shariati Avenue, Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran (
  • Ali Raza School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
  • Beena Kumari Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Indira Gandhi University, Meerpur, Rewari, Haryana, India
  • Gisou Erabi Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia ,Iran
Keywords: Drug carriers, Sol-gel, Organic-inorganic composites, Silica, Calcium composites, Bioactive glass


Drug delivery is known as an approach for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in animals and the human body to achieve effective therapy. Drug carriers are usually based on nanoparticles synthesized by several methods. The sol-gel method is an inexpensive and simple process to prepare drug carriers that can produce particles with a high degree of homogeneity and purity. The process of sol-gel involves hydrolysis, polymerization/condensation of monomers, particle growth, and gel formation. The properties of materials including composition and morphology are affected by several factors and can be controlled by the process parameters. Due to the advantages of this method, it is widely used for drug carriers’ preparation. In this study, the definition and advantages of the sol-gel process are discussed. Moreover, drug carriers such as organic-inorganic, silica, and calcium composites, as well as bioactive glass synthesized by this method are reviewed.

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How to Cite
Nasr Azadani, R., Sabbagh, M., Salehi, H., Cheshmi, A., Raza, A., Kumari, B., & Erabi, G. (2021). Sol-gel: Uncomplicated, routine and affordable synthesis procedure for utilization of composites in drug delivery: Review. Journal of Composites and Compounds, 3(6), 57-70.
Review Articles